Yuki Hatano writes:
1) Mr. O's current risk factors for
another myocardial infarction are: 1) his high blood pressure; 2) his high
LDL level; 3) lack of exercise; 4) smoking; 5) family history; 6) lack
of the knowledge about myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and heart
disease; 7) being overweight.
As many as 250,000 deaths per year in the United States -- about 12 percent of total deaths -- are attributed to a lack of regular physical activity. The relative risk of coronary heart disease (heart attack) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 1.5 to 2.4, an increase in risk comparable with that observed for high cholesterol, high blood pressure or cigarette smoking. Less active, less fit persons have a 30 -- 50 percent greater risk of developing high blood pressure. You can raise your HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) level by exercising, quitting smoking and losing weight.
Nearly one-fifth of deaths from cardiovascular diseases are attributable to smoking. It's also estimated that about 37,000 -- 40,000 nonsmokers die each year from cardiovascular diseases as a result of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. From this fact, it is obvious tobacco is a very awful thing.
Excess body fat increases your chances for high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, some types of cancer and other illnesses. "Angina" chest pain results from narrowed coronary arteries. The artery will be narrower with high blood cholesterol.
Too much cholesterol in your blood can raise your risk of a heart attack or a stroke. Extra cholesterol may be stored in your arteries(large blood vessels) and cause them to become narrow. The amount of cholesterol in an artery wall may be so large that the artery becomes blocked and blood can't flow through it. If an artery that supplies blood to your heart becomes blocked, you may have a heart attack. If an artery that supplies blood to your brain becomes blocked, you may have a stroke. The best total cholesterol level is under 200. An LDL cholesterol level of less than 130 is best. An HDL cholesterol level of less than 35 puts you at higher risk for heart disease, while an HDL level of 60 or above reduces your risk.
2) If you have another heart attack, 1) sit down or lay; 2) relaxing; 3) (take nitroglycerin) and calling doctor; 4) do 1-3 calmly and quickly!
3) What should Mr. O do within the next few weeks to improve his health outlook?
-At first, relaxing is the most important thing but stress is worse! So rest and keep calm.
-Antihypertensives are available to lower high blood pressure. Some, called diuretics, rid the body of excess fluids and salt (sodium). Others, called beta blockers, reduce the heart rate and the heart's output of blood. Another class of antihypertensives is called sympathetic nerve inhibitors. Sympathetic nerves go from the brain to all parts of the body, including the arteries. They can cause the arteries to constrict or narrow, thereby raising blood pressure. This class of drugs reduces blood pressure by inhibiting these nerves from constricting blood vessels. Another group of drugs is the vasodilators. These can cause the muscle in the walls of the blood vessels (especially the arteries) to relax, allowing the artery to dilate (widen). Two other classes of drugs used to treat high blood pressure are the A.C.E. or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and the calcium antagonists (calcium channel blockers). The A.C.E. inhibitors interfere with the body's production of angiotensin, a chemical that causes the arteries to constrict. The calcium antagonists can reduce the heart rate and relax blood vessels. In most cases these drugs lower blood pressure, but quite often people respond very differently to these medications. Thus most patients must go through a trial period to find out which medications are most effective while causing the fewest side effects. And studies showing that taking as little as half a regular-strength aspirin tablet as soon as a heart attack is suspected and continuing the drug for 30 days can significantly reduce the risk of death, experts said. Aspirin works against heart attacks by helping to dissolve clots of blood that block arteries and by preventing further blockages. The drug interferes with the production of substances called prostaglandins, which promote the clumping of blood cells called platelets. These cells are essential to the formation of blood clots. So I recommend Mr O to use aspirin with consulting doctor.
4) What should he do in the longer term to help prevent the occurrence of another heart attack?
1) Eating healthy food can help lower LDL cholesterol level, and it may protect you from the damaging effects of cholesterol.
* Eat more fruits and vegetables.
* Eat a variety of fiberrich foods, like oats, wholegrain breads and apples. Fiber helps reduce cholesterol levels. Fiberrich foods can also help when you're trying to lose weight, because they make you feel full.
* Limit high cholesterol foods.
2) Quit smoking.
3) Do moderate exercise regularly (for example, walk 20-30 min. 3 times per week).
| Click the BACK button to return to the student index.|