Makiko Kawamoto writes:

The rates of children's death in the world are different from area to area.The countries in which the rates are high are almost all in the developing world, the third world. For example, in the developing world in 1993, more than 12.2 million children under 5 years of age died. But in the developed world, only 6 out of 1,000 liveborns die before reaching age 5.

What makes such a high rate of children's deaths in the developing countries? I think it comes from the different situations between developing countries and developed countries.

In the developing world, the countries themselves are poor, because there are little industry, resources and so on. So many people are poor, because there are few place where they can work and the salaries they can earn are low. This is the biggest problem and this causes some other problems.

The first problem is malnutrition. About 43% of children in the developing countries have low weight for their age. All people are affected by malnutrition, and children are especially affected by that. As a result of iodine deficiency more than 30,000 babies are stillborn each year and over 120,000 are born retarded, physically stunted, deaf, mute, or paralysed. Moreover one quarter of all children under age 5 in developing countries lack vitamin A.

The second problem is institutions. Institutions such as proper sanitation and hospitals are few. So many people can not be under the proper guidance of medical treatment, and people, especially children who do not have enough resistance to disease, get sick or die In fact, around 2.4 million children under 5 years are still dying every year from vaccine preventable diseases. Diarrhoeal diseases, resulting from unsafe water and poor sanitation coupled with poor food-handling practices, are responsible for a further 3 million deaths a year among children under age 5 in the developing world.

The third problem is education. Because of the lack of education, mothers in developing countries do not know how to treat their children when children get sick .And women in developing countries have a low social position, so they do not work outside the home and almost all women get married and give birth to babies. Besides, people in developing countries want more workers so they keep on having more children even when they do not have the proper facilities to care for them when they are sick. And many people in the developing world do not know contraception. These are causes for why they give birth to more children than they can bring up.

From these all problems, I think that to reduce the death rate of children in developing countries, developed countries have to help.

Now we are sending money and materials to developing countries and sending money is important because if developing countries have money, children can eat enough food and they can have enough treatment.So the rates of death can be down.

But only sending money and materials is not enough because if they do not know how to use money and materials, the problems which make the high rates of children will not solved perfectly,I think.

For example, when we sent powdered milk to Africa, people who did not know how to treat the water to make the milk liquid made the milk with dirty water and did not clean the feeding bottles. So the infectious disease spread and more children was dead.

Still more, once the developed countries stop help them,they can not loose the death rate of children and furthermore the rate begin to increase.

So the things that we can do for the developing countries are not only sending money and materials but also teaching them collect information. And we have to help them as to they can do anything by themselves without our help in the future.

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